Congenial diseases

It is commonly believed, that a man gets the biggest part of the information from world through the eyesight. For this reason, the role of our ears is often underestimated. The ears are an important organ of perception, that gives us an opportunity to hear our family and friends, listen to music and other sounds. In the meantime, from the anatomical point of view, they serve as a gate for various infectious diseases. These infections may cause ear problems, or they can affect other organs, for example, brain. That’s why it is important to maintain proper health of the ears.

The ear is a unique organ that consists of three parts: external, middle and inner. The auricle and the external auditory meatus refer to the external ear. In case of necessity, these parts can be examined without any special devices. The middle ear is a drum cavity and auditory ossicles, which is located inside the temporal bone. Finally, the inner ear includes a system of bony canals responsible for the transformation of sound waves into nerve impulses. The inner ear also controls the body equilibrium.

People deal with ear problems more often than they think. According to WHO, about 5% of the world population suffer from severe forms of hearing disorders. Lighter forms are seen even more frequent, in people of different ages and professions.

The ear problems are classified into a few groups:

Congenial diseases are pathologies that are related to anatomical of physiological defects in the development of the ears. They may have a hereditary character or be a part of a complicated disturbance in the body development. Some of such ear problems are congenital neurosensory hypoacusis, microtia, Goldenhar syndrome and others.

Traumatic ear problems appear as a result of an ear injury or trauma. For example, the rupture of the tympanic membrane can occurr due to loud sharp sound or careless cleaning of the ears.


Inflammation in the ear appear as a reaction to pathological viruses, bacteria or fungi (for example, tuberculosis or angina).

Depending on the nature of the disease course, the ear problems are divided into:

Acute ear diseases — they are characterized by a sudden onset and a sharp increase in symptoms. As a rule, the patient immediately needs medical help.

Chronic ear diseases — quite often, they develop as a result of an incorrect or untimely treatment. In some cases, the disease is completely incurable, although its manifestations appear periodically, and do not bother the patient much. Sometimes, the condition is explained by hereditary predisposition, or peculiarities of a certain disease in the body.